Pharmacy Four Year Pathway Course Descriptions

LECOM Bradenton School of Pharmacy

Introduction to Pharmacy - 2 Credit Hours

The student will be introduced to the profession as material covers the history of the pharmacy profession, pharmaceutical care concepts, medical terminology and the delivery of Pharmaceutical care and the driving force, which leads the direction of the profession. Team learning and team dynamics will be emphasized, as well as communication skills.

Introduction to Health Care Delivery - 2 Credit Hours
An overview of basic structures and operations of the U.S. healthcare delivery system, including its historical origins; the changing roles of the components of the system; and the technical, economic, political and social forces responsible for these changes will be covered. Students will gain an understanding of how pharmacy practice has evolved in the healthcare delivery system. Service learning will be initiated in this course.

Biochemistry I and II - 5 Credit Hours
This course provides the molecular basis for important physiological processes and disease states, and it emphasizes that specific biological molecules are the specific targets of drug action. This course will focus on three broad areas: (1) modern concepts of protein structure and function; (2) traditional intermediary metabolism emphasizing relationships to disease states, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia; and (3) modern concepts of molecular biology and genomics. This course will provide pharmacy students with basic scientific insight into how new drugs are rationally designed, and then rationally chosen for use in individual patients.

Pharmaceutics I w/ lab - 4 Credit Hours
This two-part sequence is the study and application of the physical-chemical and mathematical principles important for the design, formulation, and effective use of dosage forms to assure product performance and achieve the desired therapeutic outcomes. The lab will emphasize practical concepts of drug physical and chemical properties as related to quantitative analysis, formulation and the stability of various drug dosage forms.

Microbiology w/lab - 4 Credit Hours
This course is an introduction to basic concepts of medical microbiology, with special focus on pathogenic microorganisms and the rational use of antibiotic drugs. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, virulence and susceptibility to antibiotic therapy will be emphasized, as will development and transmission of resistance to antibiotics. A portion of the course will be devoted to the role of the immune system in protecting against infectious disease, as well as basic understanding of immunologic disorders such as HIV-AIDS.

Pharmaceutical Calculations - 1 Credit Hour
This course introduces pharmacy students to the mathematical analysis and computations needed for basic dosage preparations and formulation essential to the practice of pharmacy.

Physiology & Anatomy - 4 Credit Hours
This course will relate anatomical structure of cells, tissues and organ systems to physiological functions and homeostasis. Attention also will focus on etiology and clinical consequences of abnormal physiological function. Special emphasis will be given to the molecular basis of physiological function as the target of pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

Pharmacist Provided Care - 2 Credit Hours
The delivery of pharmacist-provided care will be examined from the perspective of different types of services in various settings. Topics will include an introduction to pharmaceutical care, communication skills, team building, leadership, professionalism and compassion/empathy. This course will allow students to experience, at an early stage of training, real-life issues affecting patients through the continuation of service learning in an off-campus setting.

Pharmaceutics II w/lab - 4 Credit Hours
The second course in this series provides students with a qualitative and quantitative overview of drug disposition and the processes important to disposition; namely, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Sterile dosage forms will also be introduced, teaching the organization and administration of an admixture program and admixture techniques. The proper utilization of parenteral products, as well as parenteral drug compatibility literature, is also considered. Several laboratory sessions will be devoted to sterile dosage forms.

Pharmacy Law and Ethics - 2 Credit Hours
This course will examine the laws, regulations and related ethical issues regarding the practice of pharmacy and the regulation and control of drugs, cosmetics and medical devices.

Drug Information - 2 Credit Hours
The structure of a drug information center, as well as the role and functions of a drug information pharmacist will be reviewed. Students will be familiarized with the skills required to handle different types of drug information questions. Technology will be fully utilized.

Effective Communications - 1 Credit Hour
This course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to learn, observe, apply and receive feedback on effective communication skills and techniques. It will build on medication counseling information students learn in Introduction to Pharmacy. Students will be instructed on important principles required to develop positive relationships and promote positive therapeutic outcomes: engage, empathize, educate and enlist.

Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPEs) - 8 Credit Hours
Students will practice as a pharmacy extern (experiential student) for four weeks each in a community setting and in an institutional setting. They will learn details that involve the distribution of a drug from the prescription received to the safe administration of the drug to the right patient.

Basic Pharmacokinetics - 3 Credit Hours
Students will learn how to calculate various pharmacokinetic parameters that are important to the therapeutic use of drugs. By understanding and calculating the impact of various factors on drug disposition, students will develop an understanding of how therapeutic dosing may be modified.

Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry I - 3 Credit Hours
This course emphasizes the basic scientific principles that describe the interaction of drug molecules with biological systems and provides the fundamentals of rational drug therapy. The structural forces that control drug receptor interactions are reviewed from a structure-activity perspective. The physical-chemical properties of functional groups in drug molecules are related to absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.

Research Methods & Pharmacoepidemiology - 2 Credit Hours
Students will be familiarized with statistical designs and their applications in different modalities of studies. Students will also learn the principles of pharmacoepidemiology and its applications to the practice of Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics - 3 Credit Hours
The course will apply the basic concepts of Biopharmaceutics to the clinical management of various patients’ conditions. The goal is to optimize therapy and achieve maximum efficacy while preserving safety for the patients.

Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry II - 4 Credit Hours
As a continuation of Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry I, this course will familiarize students with various classes of drugs used to treat cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and inflammatory disease. Drugs that act on blood and blood-forming organs will also be discussed. Mechanisms of action, toxicity profiles, chemistry and quantitative structural activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics associated with the different drugs will be emphasized.

Clinical Skills- 2 Credit Hours
Students will learn the basics in physical assessment and monitoring the effects of drugs in patients. The clinical laboratory component will cover normal and abnormal laboratory values from different organ systems. This course will prepare students for upcoming courses in pathophysiology and therapeutics.

Pharmacy Practice Management - 2 Credit Hours
Emphasis is given to the managerial aspects of pharmacy practice within the healthcare system. This course provides basic financial and operational management knowledge and skills necessary for successful professional practice in any venue.

Pharmacotherapeutics I – III - 15 Credit Hours
This course series will cover pathophysiology and therapeutics per organ system. It will start with non-prescription drugs, medical devices and dermatology; following up with the series of the following organ systems: respiratory, cardiovascular, degenerating diseases, genital urologic diseases, endocrinology/gastro-intestinal diseases, critical care, infectious diseases, neurology, psychiatry, oncology and women’s health. The courses of Pharmacotherapeutics will be taught in a sequential and integrative manner to tie in the knowledge and concepts from Medicinal chemistry coupled with the Pharmacology of the drugs involved in the corresponding organ system and to the pathophysiology and therapeutic principles in clinical practice. This will enable students to relate the knowledge from both basic sciences and clinical sciences.

Alternative Medicine - 1 Credit Hour
This course covers different aspects of natural products used as pharmaceuticals, including both plant-derived and microbial-derived (antibiotics) products. In addition, this course will introduce students to other aspects of medical care, such as alternative medical therapies used in the U.S. and will study potential drug interactions, adverse effects and usage in the clinical arena.

Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry III - 4 Credit Hours
As a continuation of Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry II, this course will familiarize students with antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and drugs used to treat disorders of the endocrine system. Mechanisms of action, toxicity profiles, chemistry and quantitative structural activity relationships, and the pharmacokinetics associated with the different drugs will be emphasized.

Pharmacogenomics - 2 Credit Hours
This course provides students with an understanding of the ways that inherited variations in genes affect response to drugs, and how an understanding of these variations can be used to predict response. The course will provide an overview of the principles of genetic medicine and bioinformatics, and consider ethical, legal and social issues in genomics. The impact of genetics on drug metabolism and drug transporters will be discussed, as well as the role of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development. The role that pharmacogenomics plays in treatment of specific diseases will complete the course.

Drug Literature Evaluation - 2 Credit Hours
Students will read and critically evaluate current topics in medical and scientific literature, with a focus on landmark clinical trials. They will learn how to critique scientific literature to determine bias and understand the clinical benefits presented in each article discussed.

PharmD Seminar - 2 Credit Hours
Students will be expected to research a therapeutic or controversial medical topic to be presented to his or her peers and members of the faculty.

Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Assessment - 3 Credit Hours
Students are introduced to the principles and tools of pharmacoeconomics and outcome assessments that are commonly used to study the impact of pharmaceutical care services on the health and health care of a patient or community.

Public Health and Patient Safety - 2 Credit Hours
Students will discuss the impact of disease on society, and mechanisms that can be put in place to prevent disease, as well as morbidity and mortality. Government involvement in patient care and models used in other countries will also be discussed.

COURSE ELECTIVES

Research Independent Study - 2-3 Credit Hours
This research elective course provides professional pharmacy students with independent experiential opportunities in laboratory, clinic and/or literature research in the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy Practice. This course is planned, individualized and coordinated by the faculty member or mentor for the specific research activity performed by the student. It utilizes the expertise of the faculty in his or her respective field of specialization and/or interests. It affords the student an opportunity to learn about contemporary and interdisciplinary areas in the Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy Practice.

Cultural Competence for Healthcare Professionals – 2 credit hours
Students will be exposed to both patients and healthcare providers of different races, cultures and lifestyles, and will discuss the healthcare beliefs and habits generally attributed to the different groups. In addition, end-of-life, chronic disease and mental illness issues will also be discussed. Students will be given the skills to develop a culturally competent practice. Multiple teaching methods will be used in this class, including lecture, active learning and case and book discussions.
 
Leadership in Pharmacy – 2 credit hours
Students will work together to explore opportunities for leadership within the pharmacy profession related to professional organizations, advocacy, advanced training, and other avenues. Students will examine their own interests and strengths in order to begin developing independent learning goals for application during formal education and into their professional lives. The course will consist of journal reading, guest speakers, lectures, and discussion forums, and assessment techniques such as quizzes, writing assignments, projects, and class participation.
 
Death and Dying – 2 credit hours
This course will focus on death, dying and the grieving process from the perspective of the health-care practitioner. Historical and contemporary theories and models of death, dying and the grief process will be briefly covered in addition to cultural and social perspectives. Specific differences in the grieving process will be covered to include non-humans, children, the aged, spouses, early death, corporate death as well as death due to trauma, disease and suicide. The course content will be explored through the text, film, media, the arts, group discussion and guest speakers.
 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Compounding – 2 credit hours
Compounding is a process of mixing of therapeutic agent(s) by a pharmacist to fit the unique needs of patients. This may be due to reasons such as a particular therapeutic agent unavailable in a particular dosage form, discontinued product by the manufacturer, or a combination of therapeutic agents not available commercially. Compounding pharmacists play an important role in the health care profession by providing customized medications ordered by the prescriber for patients. The course is designed to increase student’s proficiency in pharmaceutical calculations and compounding and to develop an appreciation for compounding methodologies development.
 
Drug Discovery and Development – 2 credit hours
This elective course for pharmacy students will review the process of new drug discovery and development and expose students to the available career opportunities in various departments of the pharmaceutical industry. This course will review, in a general manner, various stages, with emphasis on the research aspects, a chemical entity undergoes prior to becoming a therapeutic agent and available to physicians and patients for safe and effective use. This course will introduce the students to the different aspects of research and development that are involved in the discovery and preclinical development of therapeutic agents. Furthermore, the course will briefly describe the processes of target selection, emerging techniques in drug discovery, strategies for drug design involving tools for synthesis and characterization, and developing and optimizing appropriate formulations to obtain the desired biological effects for therapeutic application. The course will consist of a series of lectures and discussions covering main aspects of drug design and development. A field trip towards the end of semester may also be planned.
 
Health Disparities – 2 credit hours
Students will be exposed to health disparities existing among the medically underserved in a variety of pharmacy settings and specialties. Pharmacy settings and/or specialties may include, but are not limited to, community, hospital, ambulatory care, mental health, pain management, and HIV/AIDS. Students will be given the skills to develop services and interventions targeting the underserved in each practice setting. Multiple teaching methods will be used in this class, including lecture, active learning, case and book discussions, reflections, and project development.
 
Drugs of Abuse – 2 credit hours
This course will be designed to help the student develop the knowledge and understanding of drugs and substances of abuse. We will begin the course with a focus on the neurobiology of drug abuse and whether drug abusers are affected differently by abusive drugs. The course will provide the student with the knowledge of the different types of drugs of abuse (psycho depressants, psycho stimulants, psychedelics etc). The student will gather knowledge on aspects of drug abuse, such as, person dimension, societal dimension and time dimension. The class will understand some theories for use and history of abuse for certain drugs. Also, the pharmacology, mechanism of actions and side effect profiles will be studied. At the completion of the course the student will have a full understanding and knowledge of what drugs have an abuse potential. Students will be expected to participate in online threaded discussion. In order to carry on distance education a student is required to be interactive. This will be accomplished by students posting their questions or concerns about topics presented. The instructor will review the postings and respond with appropriate responses. There will be specific questions posted in the discussion forum from the material presented in the power point presentations. Also, questions will be asked which will require a response in essay form.
 
Clinical Toxicology – 2 credit hours
This course will provide an analysis of general principles of clinical toxicology. Emphasis will be laid on physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of frequently encountered toxicants. The course is aimed at providing a clear understanding about the toxicants, toxidromes and the approach to affected patients. It will also lay the foundation for study of toxicology and poison prevention in clinical settings as well as providing reviews of career options in areas focusing on clinical toxicology.

Foundations in Personal Finance 2 Credit Hours
The goal of this course is to provide students with a foundation for how to think about personal finance.  This course provides a practical approach to managing one’s personal finances that includes financial record keeping, personal federal income tax, major consumer purchases, financing, investment fundamentals, and other financial topics of interest.  Students will also take a look at the millionaire culture in America to begin to understand what it means to be rich and how it is possible perceptions created by pop culture do not truly match up with how wealthy families live.  The course work will consist of weekly assignments and quizzes and there will also be 3 exams.

Perspectives and Issues in Gerontology 2 Credit hours
This online elective course in geriatrics provides professional pharmacy students with knowledge of the most current findings from leading gerontological researchers and practitioners. We will examine the science behind the physical aspects of aging in addition to the social and cultural aspects of aging including public policy, economics, senior housing, and service delivery.

Travel Medicine 2 Credit hours
This is an elective course that explores the health risks associated with traveling abroad through team-based learning (TBL).  Students will learn about the pharmacist’s integral role in prevention and treatment for diseases associated with international travel. This course incorporates active learning and discussion to provide up-to-date health recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's information and official government recommendations for international travel. This course will provide students with an understanding of pre- and post-travel clinical guidance, disease risk maps, detailed country-specific information for common travel diseases, and information on where to find health care during travel.

Pharmacy Hot Topics 2 Credit hours
This course will introduce new topics, concerns, or issues in pharmacy practice.  The course will integrate the knowledge learned in previous courses, such as pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacotherapeutics, drug information, and research methods.  Students will be required to develop systematic approaches for analyzing the topic of interest and formulating a clinical recommendation.  Students will have the opportunity to discuss core-concepts in pharmacy practice, clinically relevant issues and other hot topics in healthcare that have an impact on patient care.