Lecture Discussion Pathway Phase 2 Courses
This phase begins in the second semester of the first year and continues throughout the second year.
An understanding of the etiology, pathophysiological ramifications, current diagnostic capabilities and treatments of disease is fundamental to the development of the complete osteopathic primary care physician, as well as to the systems approach of medical education. With this premise, the basic and clinical science components of the LECOM Systems Curriculum concerned with each particular organ system of the body are integrated in classroom and small group instruction/discussion.
Instructional materials presented within each particular system expand upon basic principles mastered during the Phase I Core Curriculum. Preclinical topics consider each respective system from viewpoints of the basic science disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology and physiology. As a complement, clinical perspectives are offered from the point of view of both the primary care physician, as well as the respective specialist. This format of presentation not only promotes a better learning environment due to extensive integration/correlation of course material, but also provides a "real life" view of contemporary healthcare.
Importantly, clinical considerations are presented and integrated with the practical application of basic science principles. Practical knowledge acquired from the History and Physical Examination Course is reviewed, examined and discussed within a clinical context.
Other instructional modalities, proceeding concurrently within each respective system, are designed to reinforce, complement and expand upon the actual coursework comprising that system. These modalities include, but are not limited to, Geriatric Medicine, Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine, Medical Ethics, Medical Jurisprudence, Emergency Medicine, Radiology and Pediatrics. Important aspects of Family Medicine and other presentations are introduced throughout the systems as appropriate.
The osteopathic approach to patient care is continually emphasized, both philosophically and in practice, from the first day of class through graduation by means of lectures and laboratory demonstrations of manipulative techniques. Concepts of osteopathic philosophy and practice are included in all aspects of LECOM's educational programs whenever possible.
Overall Curriculum II-IV Phase II
First Year: Second Semester
History and Physical (H&P) Examination II
Basic Neurosensory System
Clinical Neurosensory System
Osteopathic Principles and Practice II
Second Year: First Semester
Osteopathic Principles and Practice III
History and Physical Examination III
Public Health and Preventative Medicine
Second Year: Second Semester
History and Physical Examination IV
Advanced Cardiac Life Support (A.C.L.S.)
Osteopathic Principles and Practice IV
Systems Courses Phase II
Basic Neurosensory System
Clinical Neurosensory System
Non-System Courses Phase II
Family Medicine Courses And Intersystem Topics In Medicine
A series of Family Medicine Courses are integrated into the Phase II systems for the purpose of increasing the number of graduating students with the education and the experience needed to enter the field of primary care osteopathic medicine.
History and Physical Examination Curriculum
History and Physical Examination I (H&P I) – OMS-I Fall Semester – all pathways
Using the sensory faculties, this course teaches history and physical examination of patients. H&P I teaches the art of obtaining an accurate history from patients in a clinical setting. The primary aim of this part of the course is to identify the components of a complete history and develop interviewing skills, which allow the physician to precisely identify pertinent history and direct the physical examination. Performing concise physical examinations in concert with taking accurate histories provides a solid foundation that allows the physician to build an appropriate differential diagnosis based on the patients' complaints. The course presents methodology, vocabulary and assessment skills that are necessary for interviewing patients and will provide experience via mock patient encounters with correlation to osteopathic principles, therapy and basic sciences.
After completion of H&P I, students will properly obtain and document complete patient clinical histories, recognize and tailor interviewing techniques for difficult patients and incorporate humanistic qualities in the patient interview.
History and Physical Examination II (H&P II) – OMS-I Spring Semester – all pathways
This course is a continuation of History and Physical Examination. Performing concise physical examinations in concert with taking accurate histories provides a solid foundation that allows the physician to build an appropriate differential diagnosis based on the patient's complaints. After completion of the Clinical Examination course, the student will properly perform and document the physical examination, perform a complete physical examination, begin to differentiate normal from abnormal physical findings and have completed basic CPR training.
History and Physical Examination III (H&P III) – OMS-II Fall Semester – all pathways
This course is a continuation of History and Physical Examination. Using the sensory faculties, the course teaches history and physical evaluation of patients. Performing concise physical examinations in concert with taking accurate histories provides a solid foundation that allows the physician to build an appropriate differential diagnosis based on the patient's complaints. The primary aim of the course is to present methodology, vocabulary and assessment skills that are necessary for examination of patients. This course will provide experience via interactive case presentations and standardized patient encounters. The student will gain experience in sensitive examinations through the SPEC program and the ophthalmologic exam through the OPTC program.
After completion of the History and Physical Examination II, students will properly perform and document complete history and physical examinations, demonstrate competency in the delivery of humanistic patient interactions, begin to differentiate normal from abnormal physical findings, accurately perform problem specific history and physical examinations, demonstrate sensitive patient examinations, have participated in performing a complete ophthalmologic examination, expand the differential diagnoses for case presentations, and develop increased competency in reading and writing SOAP notes.
History and Physical Examination IV (H&P IV) – OMS-II Spring Semester – all pathways
This course is a continuation of the History and Physical Examination series. In preparation for the MSIII clinical rotation experiences, students will advance through multiple clinical experiences to include performing complete history and physical examinations, venipuncture, gowning, gloving, scrubbing and suturing. Students will also learn arterial blood gas technique and participate in preceptor experiences. Students will gain experience in sensitive examinations through continuation of the SPEC program and the ophthalmologic exam through the OPTC program, and they will receive instruction in the Fundamentals of Core Clinical Rotations through the Competencies for Physician lecture series. After completion of the Clinical Examination course, the student will be able to perform and document a complete history and physical examination, perform and document problem specific examinations in an ambulatory setting, prepare an assessment and plan, proficiently perform venipuncture, perform simple suturing techniques, self don gloves, perform a scrub prior to a surgical procedure and provide smoking cessation instruction within a standardized patient encounter.
The Human Sexuality course develops a sensitivity to and understanding of the sexual attitudes and experiences of varied populations. The psychosexual components and sociocultural aspects of human sexual behavior are explored.
Medical Jurisprudence is presented in the first semester of the second year. While the major facts of medical practice vary from state to state, some factors are common to all areas. Using Pennsylvania laws as a base, and incorporating neighboring state laws where applicable, the general rules of medical practice are presented. The obligations of the physician to the community, the patient, the hospital, colleagues and society form a small, but important part of the study. The course discusses duties and responsibilities, the medical and legal aspects of medicine, standards of care, vicarious liability and negligence. Special attention is made to discuss the relationship between the ethical and legal issues of medical practice.
Geriatrics provides instruction to the student on special problems of the elderly, with emphasis on improving clinical skills to deal with the unique diagnostic, therapeutic and psychosocial problems of older adults. Various topics related to the geriatric patient are also integrated into the systems. With the knowledge obtained from this course, the student will be able to make informed decisions about the availability of health care to geriatric patients and improve the physical, psychological and social well-being of older adults in his/her practice.
Public Health and Preventative Medicine
Public Health and Preventative Medicine provide second-year osteopathic medical students with an introduction to selected issues and methods with respect to public health, and an appreciation of research epidemiology and prevention. Though most students will not enter full-time public health careers, public health issues impact every physician's practice. Knowledge of how individual health issues affect (and are impacted by) the community is essential for the future physician.
Psychiatry / Substance Abuse
The Psychiatry course, offered in the second semester of the second year, is designed to provide a basic overview of the subject and to prepare a primary care physician to recognize and deal with a patient's psychiatric problems. The goal of the course is to assist the student in developing personal skills and to provide background knowledge on the use of ancillary personnel and specialized cooperative psychiatric care.
Substance Abuse is a subcomponent of the Psychiatry course. The student is introduced to the complex issues relating to alcohol and drug abuse. The pharmacology of the major drugs of abuse is presented, followed by detailed considerations of the causes, manifestations, and treatment of alcoholism and other forms of drug dependence. The role of the family physician is discussed, and opportunity is provided for the exploration of attitudes toward substance abuse and possible solutions to the substance abuse problems.
This course is taught as a series of lectures interspersed throughout Phase II with appropriate emergencies discussed within each system. The purpose is to educate osteopathic medical students in the basis of emergency medicine, utilizing a structural and functional approach wherever possible. All students will receive Basic Life Support (B.L.S.) instruction, which includes certification in C.P.R., according to American Heart Association standards, during the first year. They receive Advanced Cardiac Life Support (A.C.L.S.) training at the end of their second year. Basic areas covered in detail are physical and emotional trauma, poisonings, the paramedic system and emergency childbirth.
Pediatrics is taught throughout the systems. Recognizing that the child is not just a small adult, this course is devoted to the special problems of childhood. In addition, adolescent medical care is presented within the Reproductive System. Correlations among the pediatric, adult and geriatric patient population are discussed as appropriate.
Environmental medicine is a component of each system. Topics such as the toxicological aspects of heavy metals; contaminants in water, air and soil; exposure to hypo-or hyperbaric environments; exposure to extreme cold or heat; and other areas of medical importance are discussed in a lecture or case presentation format.
Advanced Cardiac Life Support (A.C.L.S)
A.C.L.S. is presented at the end of the second year. This training program, sponsored by the American Heart Association, is designed to help the students achieve a better understanding of their roles as future players in the cardiopulmonary resuscitative team. The prerequisite is Basic Life Support (B.L.S.), which is included in the History and Physical Examination I course.
- Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine